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Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich

Philosophy DictionaryTheological and Philosophical Dictionary
(1770-1831) German idealistic philosopher; absolute idealism which is that all reality is mental and organic in nature; dialectic al materialism . Wrote 1. Phenomenology of Mind, 2. Science of Logic, and 3. Philosophy of History. Regarding his theory of reality, he was an absolute idealist. Reality is the realization or unfolding of Spirit (Geist). Reality is a process similar to thought, a dialectic (thesis &lt---&gt antithesis --&gt synthesis) in which Spirit objectifies itself as the world and develops a knowledge of itself in the world. Hegel's system is built on the triad: Idea-Nature-Spirit. The Idea-in-itself (thesis) is that which develops. It is the dynamic reality of the world. In fact, it is that which exists before the world. The Idea-out-side-of-itself (Antithesis ) is Space or Nature. Nature develops into man. In his consciousness the Idea becomes conscious of itself. This self-consciousness of the Idea is Spirit which is the antithesis of Idea and Nature. The development of this consciousness is History. History, in turn, is the autobiography of God or the reality of God. Through this history (i.e., the life of man and his institutions), Spirit achieves its goal of self-consciousness and freedom. In and through man and his growing self-consciousness and freedom, Spirit achieves its own realization as freedom the Idea which understands itself. Parallel with the rational dialectic is the dialectic of events. From every thesis in thought and event arises a necessary opposition which is called antithesis . The conflict or merging of the two results in synthesis. The synthesis is a higher reality or truth that goes beyond either the thesis or antithesis . Spirit is the dialectic process taken as a whole. "What is rational is real, and what is real is rational." Particular entities or events are real only as aspects of the life of Spirit. Regarding his theory of mind: Individual minds are the Absolute Mind (Spirit) objectifying itself and becoming self-conscious in human self-consciousness. Mind exists 1. subjectively as knowing and reasoning; 2. objectively as nature and history; 3. absolutely as the Idea. The world is not inner reality and outer appearance; the inner is the outer -- mind is the body; nature is the absolute objectified in space and time. Nature is visible Spirit; Spirit is invisible Nature. Mind evolves as 1. soul (mind dependent on nature); 2. consciousness (mind opposed to Nature); 3. Spirit (mind reconciled with Nature in understanding and knowledge. The Absolute 1. embodies itself first as the individual (soul); 2. becomes conscious of itself as other than merely body (consciousness); then 3. develops self-consciousness as Spirit. In self-consciousness, mind combines subject and object and becomes Spirit (i.e., Reality). In other words, soul and body are annulled by their opposition, but in another sense are preserved by the resulting synthesis as Spirit, at a higher level. Hegel characterized this end by the fortuitous German word aufgehoben.

 

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A posteriori know...A priori knowledge
A priori, analyti...
A priori, theory ...A priori,presuppo...ABSOLUTE
ABSTRACTION
ABSURDITY
AFFINITY
ALTERATION (CHANGE)
AMPHIBOLY
ANALOGY OF EXPERI...
ANALYTIC
ANALYTIC METHOD
ANALYTIC UNITY OF...
ANTECEDENT PROPOS...ANTHROPOLOGY
ANTICIPATION OF P...
ANTINOMY
APOAGOGIC
APPEARANCE
APPREHENSION
APRIORI
ARCHETYPE
ARCHITECTONIC
ATTENTION
ATTRIBUTE
AUTHENTICITY
AXIOMS OF INTUITION
Abbott, Lyman
Abdera
Abelard, Peter
Abelson, Robert
Abernathy, John
Absolute
Absolute idealism
Absolute theism
Absolutes
Absolutism
Abstract ideas
Acquaintance
Act agapism
Act deontology
Act teleology
Act utilitarianism
Action
Action theory
Adams
Adams, Jay E
Adams, Thomas
Aenesidemus
Aesthetic hedonism
Aesthetic humanism
Aesthetic stage
Aesthetics
Aeterni Patris
Agapism
Agapistic ethics
Agnostic
Agnosticism
Albertus Magnus
Albigensians
Albright, Jacob
Alesius, Alexander
Alexander, Archib...Alexander, James W.
Alexander, Samuel
Alleine, Joseph
Allon, Henry
Altizer, Thomas J...Altruism
Altruistic
Altruistic hedonism
Ambrose
Ambrose, Isaac
Amish
Ammann, Jacob
Anabaptist
Analogical predic...Analysis
Analytic philosophy
Analytical
Analytical philos...Analytical statem...
Anamnesis
Anarchism
Anaxagoras
Anaximander
Anaximenes
Anderson, James
Anderson, John R.
Andrewes, Lancelot
Angier, John
Animal faith
Anselm
Anthony of Padua
Anthropology
Anthropomorphism
Antifallibilism

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