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SUBSTANCE

Philosophy DictionaryKant Dictionary
[A80/B106] The first category of relation, discussed in detail in the First Analogy (the associated categories, discussed in the subsequent Analogies, are causality and community). [B149] In the Deduction in B, substance is defined as "something which can exist as subject and never as mere predicate". [A143/B183] In the Schematism, defines the schema of substance as "permanence of the real in time, that is, the representation of the real as a substrate of empirical time in general, and so abiding while all else changes". [A182/B224] In the First Analogy Kant argues that this schematized category must be employed in any possible experience, and thus that we must understand appearances as being representations of substance , and understand changes as changes in substance. (What is the relation to substance as what we represent appearances representing, and the "transcendental object =x" which appearances actually represent? Well, Kant only requires that we represent substance as existing, which is not to say that it exists, even according to his own standards of empirical reality (thus the Refutation is needed in addition to the Analogies to rebut skepticism of the external world). Secondly, in any case, Kant couldn't consistently claim to know anything about the "transcendental object =x", and thus couldn't consistently assert that it is substance.)
[A184/B227] In the First Analogy, Kant concludes: "All existence and all change in time thus have to be viewed as simply a mode of the existence of that which remains and persists. In all appearances the permanent is the object itself, that is, substance as phenomenon; everything, on the other hand, which changes or can change belongs only to the way in which substance or substances exist, and therefore to their determinations....The only difference in this matter between the common man and the philosopher is that the latter expresses himself somewhat more definitely, asserting that throughout all changes in the world remains substance remains, and that only the accidents change".

Philosophy DictionaryTheological and Philosophical Dictionary
That which makes a thing what it is and not something else, i.e., essence (ousia) in Greek philosophy. Aristotle said essence equals substance. Aristotle said substance is the inherent essence or cause of a particular thing, i.e., the unity of its form and matter. In scholasticism, substance is that which exists and persists independent of any other being. In Cartesianism , substance is that which exists independent of any other being. Infinite substance is God; finite substance, mind, and matter. In Spinoza , there is only infinite substance (God) and its modes. In Kantianism , substance becomes a subjective concept of the mind arising from the necessary organizing activity of Mind in connection with the data of experience. In British empiricism , substance is essentially the systematic or coherent organization of the specific qualities of experience. As such, it does not exist or is unknowable.

 

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A posteriori know...A priori knowledge
A priori, analyti...
A priori, theory ...A priori,presuppo...ABSOLUTE
ABSTRACTION
ABSURDITY
AFFINITY
ALTERATION (CHANGE)
AMPHIBOLY
ANALOGY OF EXPERI...
ANALYTIC
ANALYTIC METHOD
ANALYTIC UNITY OF...
ANTECEDENT PROPOS...ANTHROPOLOGY
ANTICIPATION OF P...
ANTINOMY
APOAGOGIC
APPEARANCE
APPREHENSION
APRIORI
ARCHETYPE
ARCHITECTONIC
ATTENTION
ATTRIBUTE
AUTHENTICITY
AXIOMS OF INTUITION
Abbott, Lyman
Abdera
Abelard, Peter
Abelson, Robert
Abernathy, John
Absolute
Absolute idealism
Absolute theism
Absolutes
Absolutism
Abstract ideas
Acquaintance
Act agapism
Act deontology
Act teleology
Act utilitarianism
Action
Action theory
Adams
Adams, Jay E
Adams, Thomas
Aenesidemus
Aesthetic hedonism
Aesthetic humanism
Aesthetic stage
Aesthetics
Aeterni Patris
Agapism
Agapistic ethics
Agnostic
Agnosticism
Albertus Magnus
Albigensians
Albright, Jacob
Alesius, Alexander
Alexander, Archib...Alexander, James W.
Alexander, Samuel
Alleine, Joseph
Allon, Henry
Altizer, Thomas J...Altruism
Altruistic
Altruistic hedonism
Ambrose
Ambrose, Isaac
Amish
Ammann, Jacob
Anabaptist
Analogical predic...Analysis
Analytic philosophy
Analytical
Analytical philos...Analytical statem...
Anamnesis
Anarchism
Anaxagoras
Anaximander
Anaximenes
Anderson, James
Anderson, John R.
Andrewes, Lancelot
Angier, John
Animal faith
Anselm
Anthony of Padua
Anthropology
Anthropomorphism
Antifallibilism

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