Philosophy Dictionary

Home -› Sartre, Jean-Paul

Define!

Philosophy Dictionaries

Dictionary of Kants Technical Terms

Kant Dictionary

Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind

Theological and Philosophical Dictionary


Literature Quote


Definition Of:

Sartre, Jean-Paul

Philosophy DictionaryTheological and Philosophical Dictionary
(1905-1980) French existentialist; atheist. Wrote 1. The Transcendence of the Ego, 2. Nausea, 3. Theory of the Emotions, 4. Being and Nothingness, 5. Critique of Dialectical Reason, 6. No Exit, and 7. Existentialism Is Humanism . Develops a "phenomenological ontology " centring on a reflexive analysis of consciousness, wherein "consciousness of something" is distinguished from the self-consciousness that is reflexively implicit or "mirrored" in "consciousness of something." As being-in-itself, the world is everything that is given meaning or structured by being-for-itself in the act of consciousness. As free and transcending self-consciousness, being-for-itself is nothingness. When one becomes self-conscious, one reflects on the pre-reflective consciousness of something else. The self of which I become conscious is not the subject performing the reflection, but its intentional object which has emerged in retrospect. In-itself it is nothingness. Though the world is objective, what it is in-itself (its structure) must be conferred by the knower as the creator of all meaning in the act of knowing. There is no antecedent human nature as a substantial self, as in Descartes , or transcendental self, as in Kant or Husserl . Also there is no God, whose essence is existence. There is only man, whose consciousness is existence without essence (i.e., nothingness). Existence is not the fact of existing in the usual sense. Existence is consciousness, and consciousness is nothingness. "Existence precedes essence." Essence (i.e., meaning, or what something is, etc.) must be chosen. Consciousness for-itself must choose itself by its acts or choices; this implies freedom. But freedom exists only as consciousness acts in relation to the world. Man is only as he "defines himself by his goals," i.e., only as he chooses his future.

 

Philosophy Dictionary INDEX:

List of Terms: Terms beginning with "A", Page 1

Starts With:      A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Page Number:      1 2

A: Page 1 of 2.

A posteriori know...A priori knowledge
A priori, analyti...
A priori, theory ...A priori,presuppo...ABSOLUTE
ABSTRACTION
ABSURDITY
AFFINITY
ALTERATION (CHANGE)
AMPHIBOLY
ANALOGY OF EXPERI...
ANALYTIC
ANALYTIC METHOD
ANALYTIC UNITY OF...
ANTECEDENT PROPOS...ANTHROPOLOGY
ANTICIPATION OF P...
ANTINOMY
APOAGOGIC
APPEARANCE
APPREHENSION
APRIORI
ARCHETYPE
ARCHITECTONIC
ATTENTION
ATTRIBUTE
AUTHENTICITY
AXIOMS OF INTUITION
Abbott, Lyman
Abdera
Abelard, Peter
Abelson, Robert
Abernathy, John
Absolute
Absolute idealism
Absolute theism
Absolutes
Absolutism
Abstract ideas
Acquaintance
Act agapism
Act deontology
Act teleology
Act utilitarianism
Action
Action theory
Adams
Adams, Jay E
Adams, Thomas
Aenesidemus
Aesthetic hedonism
Aesthetic humanism
Aesthetic stage
Aesthetics
Aeterni Patris
Agapism
Agapistic ethics
Agnostic
Agnosticism
Albertus Magnus
Albigensians
Albright, Jacob
Alesius, Alexander
Alexander, Archib...Alexander, James W.
Alexander, Samuel
Alleine, Joseph
Allon, Henry
Altizer, Thomas J...Altruism
Altruistic
Altruistic hedonism
Ambrose
Ambrose, Isaac
Amish
Ammann, Jacob
Anabaptist
Analogical predic...Analysis
Analytic philosophy
Analytical
Analytical philos...Analytical statem...
Anamnesis
Anarchism
Anaxagoras
Anaximander
Anaximenes
Anderson, James
Anderson, John R.
Andrewes, Lancelot
Angier, John
Animal faith
Anselm
Anthony of Padua
Anthropology
Anthropomorphism
Antifallibilism

Home   |   About Us   |   Contact Us
 
Copyright © 2008 Philosophy-Dictionary.org. All Rights Reserved.