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knowledge

Philosophy DictionaryDictionary of Kants Technical Terms
the final goal of the understanding in combining intuitions and concepts. If they are pure, the knowledge will be transcendental; if they are impure, the knowledge will be empirical. In a looser sense, 'knowledge' also refers to that which arises out adopting any legitimate perspective.
Philosophy DictionaryKant Dictionary
[L:72] In the Logic Kant sharply distinguishes opinion, belief, and knowledge, which are the three "modes of holding-to-be-true", three kinds of judgment "through which something is presented [i.e., represented] as true". Knowledge is the strongest mode of judgment of truth and is apodeictic: "what I know, I hold to be apodeictically certain, i.e. to be universally and objectively certain", although Kant suggests that we can make this judgment about "a mere empirical truth". [L:78] This kind of knowledge--"or certainty"--is a judgment of truth by on "a cognitive ground that is both objectively and subjectively sufficient". There are two kinds of knowledge (certainty), empirical and rational. Rational certainty is mathematical (in which case it is intuitive certainty) or discursive; all rational certainty is apodeictic. By contrast, "empirical certainty" is not apodeictic (And thus not, strictly speaking, knowledge?) but assertoric. Kant comments, "we cannot have rational certainty of everything, but where we can have it, we must prefer it to the empirical". [A320/B377] In the Critique, Kant's first definition of knowledge--as "objective perception"--occurs early in the Dialectic. Kant gives this "definition" in the midst of an appeal not to use the term `idea' loosely, but to follow his terminology for the various kinds of representations; the passage rather confusingly invokes many earlier distinctions. Kant writes: "The genus is representation in general. Subordinate to it stands representation with consciousness. A perception which relates solely to the subject as the modification of its state is sensation, an objective perception is knowledge. This is either intuition or concept....The concept is either an empirical or a pure concept". [A822/B850] Much later in the Dialectic Kant speaks of knowledge in the terms of the Logic, writing "the holding of a thing to be true...has the following three degrees: opining, believing, and knowing....when the holding of a thing to be true is sufficient both subjectively and objectively, it is knowledge....Objective sufficiency is termed certainty". Presumably the "empirical knowledge"--experience--discussed in the Aesthetic and Analytic is different from this, which Kant characterizes (and then presumably goes on to critique) as "the transcendental employment of reason". In the Deduction in B, KAnt speaks of the understanding as "the faculty of knowledge"--presumably empirical knowledge of appearances. "This knowledge consists in the determinate relation of given representations to an object; and an object is that in the concept of which the manifold of a given intuition is united", suggesting, as he does later, a coherence theory of (the nature of) truth. Of course, there is no kind of this knowledge beyond experience.
Philosophy DictionaryDictionary of Philosophy of Mind
Justified true belief (until the introduction of the Gettier problem). See epistemology.
&ltDiscussion&gt &ltReferences&gt P. Mandik
Knowledge that enters into the production of behaviors and/or the constitution of mental states but is not ordinarily accessible to consciousness. See also cognizeknowledgeimplicit memoryBackgroundrules. &ltDiscussion&gt &ltReferences&gt Daniel Barbiero
Philosophy DictionaryTheological and Philosophical Dictionary

 

Philosophy Dictionary INDEX:

List of Terms: Terms beginning with "A", Page 1

Starts With:      A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
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A: Page 1 of 2.

A posteriori know...A priori knowledge
A priori, analyti...
A priori, theory ...A priori,presuppo...ABSOLUTE
ABSTRACTION
ABSURDITY
AFFINITY
ALTERATION (CHANGE)
AMPHIBOLY
ANALOGY OF EXPERI...
ANALYTIC
ANALYTIC METHOD
ANALYTIC UNITY OF...
ANTECEDENT PROPOS...ANTHROPOLOGY
ANTICIPATION OF P...
ANTINOMY
APOAGOGIC
APPEARANCE
APPREHENSION
APRIORI
ARCHETYPE
ARCHITECTONIC
ATTENTION
ATTRIBUTE
AUTHENTICITY
AXIOMS OF INTUITION
Abbott, Lyman
Abdera
Abelard, Peter
Abelson, Robert
Abernathy, John
Absolute
Absolute idealism
Absolute theism
Absolutes
Absolutism
Abstract ideas
Acquaintance
Act agapism
Act deontology
Act teleology
Act utilitarianism
Action
Action theory
Adams
Adams, Jay E
Adams, Thomas
Aenesidemus
Aesthetic hedonism
Aesthetic humanism
Aesthetic stage
Aesthetics
Aeterni Patris
Agapism
Agapistic ethics
Agnostic
Agnosticism
Albertus Magnus
Albigensians
Albright, Jacob
Alesius, Alexander
Alexander, Archib...Alexander, James W.
Alexander, Samuel
Alleine, Joseph
Allon, Henry
Altizer, Thomas J...Altruism
Altruistic
Altruistic hedonism
Ambrose
Ambrose, Isaac
Amish
Ammann, Jacob
Anabaptist
Analogical predic...Analysis
Analytic philosophy
Analytical
Analytical philos...Analytical statem...
Anamnesis
Anarchism
Anaxagoras
Anaximander
Anaximenes
Anderson, James
Anderson, John R.
Andrewes, Lancelot
Angier, John
Animal faith
Anselm
Anthony of Padua
Anthropology
Anthropomorphism
Antifallibilism

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